These first research works address gender socialization (in the family, school, university and work spheres) and its effects, and especially its impact on the appropriation by children of the fairness norms of the school sphere. The ambition of primary school is indeed to socialize 6-to-11-year-old children by making them discover the sense of reciprocity and solidarity; it intends to teach them to live in harmony with one another - as can be seen from its recent objective of gender equality awareness raising. How do children react to the related programs and actions? Another issue is the impact of gender socialization on the formation of tastes, distastes and preferences that contribute to the differentiated construction of social group moralities. Moreover, within the DEVHOM National Research Agency project (research theme n°2), the question of domestic fairness in same-sex families is also studied. How are care tasks, that are mainly strongly socially linked to a specific masculine or feminine gender, distributed in same-sex families? More fundamentally, a reflection is conducted on the question of fairness in the family sphere by discussing the recent effort of feminists, and of critical ideas in general, for a recognition of the specificity of this sphere, of the equal dignity of its members and of the related distributive justice questions. These issues will reveal to what extent the specific context of family, which is not cut off from society, politics or legal institutions, obliges the normative reflection to redefine its objects.